Health

What are Pregnancy Complications?

What are Pregnancy Complications?


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Pregnancy is one of the most beautiful periods of your life, because you are waiting for your baby. However, there may be situations where you will have difficulty from time to time. We have put together these situations and ways of emancipation for you.

Excessive Vomiting in Pregnancy

Morning vomiting during pregnancy excessive is more common in first pregnancies, multiple pregnancies and those who have experienced the same condition in their previous pregnancy. Psychological stress may be a factor, but the sensitivity of the vomiting center in the brain is the main cause and varies from person to person.

Nausea and vomiting, which begin in early pregnancy, are unusually frequent and severe. These sometimes last for 9 months. If not avoided, frequent vomiting can lead to malnutrition and harm the baby's health. Morning nausea and vomiting, with severe abdominal pain gallbladder or pancreas may be involved and immediate medical care is recommended.

Morning vomiting;

  • Nutrition measures,
  • Rest,
  • Antacids,
  • It can be controlled with anti-vomiting drugs.

If vomiting persists and the mother cannot gain enough weight, hospitalization may be necessary. It may be necessary to investigate causes such as gastritis, bowel obstruction or ulcers.
To reduce the stimulus, the patient's room is dimmed and visitors may be restricted. Psychotherapy can also be applied to the patient to reduce tension. If necessary, intravenous feeding with vomiting (usually 24-48 hours) is administered. Then, the clear liquid diet is started and if the person can drink it, the amount is increased and the other foods can be passed gradually.

Sometimes, if the problem lasts long enough to prevent the baby from feeding properly, it may be considered to allow the gastrointestinal tract to be rested by adding special nutrients and vitamins to the vascular access fluids. Intravenous intensive nutrition (intravenous hyperalimentation) It called. Very rare
If the mother's life is in danger, it may be necessary to terminate the pregnancy.

PREGNANCY SUGAR

This is the body increased blood sugar during pregnancy It is similar to other diabetes diseases but it is a temporary condition. It is not dangerous for the mother and the baby, whether or not they start during pregnancy or if diabetes is kept under control. However, if it is not controlled by medications and diet, excess sugar in the mother's blood passes from the placenta to the baby, and there are potential dangers for both mother and baby.

The first sign is the presence of sugar in your urine. At the same time, excessive fatigue, excessive thirst, frequent and large amounts of urine can be seen. Fortunately pregnancy sugar all potential risks (preterm birth, intrauterine growth retardation or very large baby)
With medical care, and frequent and continuous checks of blood sugar level can be eliminated.

LOW IN PREGNANCY

It is a term used to abruptly stop abortion. If it occurs before the 6th month of pregnancy, miscarriage occurs later early birth in question. Your pregnancy seemed to start normally, and suddenly you noticed some bleeding that sometimes accompanied the pains under the belly. Before panicking, ask yourself if your mores have theoretical time. During the first two or three months of pregnancy, the pregnant woman may have some bleeding. These bleeds do not matter.
Any bleeding other than this should be considered an alarm and referred to a doctor. Only your doctor will be able to examine the meaning of this bleeding.

The cause of the bleeding is difficult to understand immediately and some tests are necessary. An ultrasound and the determination of beta HCG levels in the blood will give an idea of ​​whether pregnancy is still continuing.

In general, it is unlikely to see the future of a threat of miscarriage. Is your situation low or not? What should you do while you wait? These questions may remain unanswered for a few days or weeks. This bothers you.

Rest threatened premature birth although necessary, the full benefit of the threat of miscarriage has not been shown. However, if the threat of miscarriage is due to a known cause, such as excessive opening of the cervix, then special treatment is required. In some cases everything goes well. Bleeds are reduced and the cervix closes. The baby continues to develop in the womb. Blood hormones and ultrasound return to normal. You can only return to normal life if your doctor tells you that the threat of miscarriage has been eliminated. Many women are anxious to give birth to an unhealthy child after suffering a miscarriage. But this anxiety is unnecessary. If the abortion does not occur and the pregnancy continues, the mother has the chance to have a normal birth. In other cases, the low becomes gradual. Bleeding increases regularly, the uterus no longer develops, and ultrasound confirms the cessation of pregnancy.

How long should I rest after abortion?

Normally you get up in a few days. But after a miscarriage you may experience a period of depression that can last long. Psychologically, this depression occurs because the dreams of a woman who are happy to expect a child suddenly collapse. The depression can also be explained by the hormonal imbalance following a pregnancy interruption. If you are depressed and worried, share this with your doctor.
After a miscarriage, you ask yourself questions about the future. You wonder why this miscarriage is going to happen or not. If you get in touch with your doctor, he will do the necessary tests for you during the new ovulation period and will save you from these worries.

Miscarriage does not scare you, it does not pose a definite danger to your other pregnancies.

There is something important to know. It's a low accident. Then many women carry out other pregnancies well. In most cases (about 70%) the cause is due to chromosomal abnormalities. A damaged egg with a bad chromosome cannot survive is thrown out of the mother's body in this way. A miscarriage caused by chromosomal abnormality should not cause concern for subsequent pregnancies.
If there is a low consecutiveIf there are three conditions that can cause it, and it is necessary to investigate them, a pregnancy under the control of continuous physician should be maintained. These three situations are:

• Regional causes lying at the level of the uterus (depending on the mother's body anatomy)
• Maternal diseases (inflammatory diseases anywhere in the body, high blood pressure, poisoning)
• Hormone deficiencies

BLOOD PRESSURE HEIGHT DUE TO PREGNANCY


Toxemi also called preclampsia high blood pressure in pregnancy Although some research is attributed to malnutrition, no one can say the exact cause or why it is more common to be a mother for the first time. Initially, it is manifested by sudden excessive weight gain, swelling of the face and hands (both due to water retention), high blood pressure (140/90 or higher), and presence of protein in the urine. Typical features of this situation; further increase in blood pressure (160/110 and above), increase in the amount of urine protein, blurred vision, headache, severe itching throughout the body, restlessness, blurred consciousness, impaired liver and kidney function.
Preeclampsia occurs in 10-15% of pregnancies. Without treatment, it can cause permanent damage to the mother's nervous system, blood vessels, or kidneys. In the baby, it can cause growth retardation (because the amount of blood flowing from the placenta to the baby is reduced), or oxygen deprivation. Fortunately, in women who go for regular checkups during pregnancy, the condition is almost always caught at the beginning and treated successfully by preventing it from giving bad results.

Treatment will vary according to the severity of the disease, the condition of both the baby and the mother, the duration of pregnancy and the decision of the physician. If the disease is mild and the woman is nearing the end of the pregnancy, the cervix is ​​ripe without waiting. If the woman is not close to the end of pregnancy, usually a full bed rest (preferred to lie on the left side) and strict supervision in the hospital are applied. These patients often do not start medication immediately. In very mild cases, bed rest is allowed at home when blood pressure improves. If she is allowed to go home, she should be checked frequently by a nurse or doctor.
The baby's condition and heartbeat will be monitored every day. If a deterioration occurs and it is decided that it will be safer outside the uterus, a decision will be taken for premature labor. is not allowed to spend the day. Depending on the conditions, either the pain is initiated or taken by cesarean section.

In cases of severe preeclampsia, treatment is severe. Immediate intravenous magnesium sulphate is given. This substance prevents epileptic seizures, which is one of the most important complications of the disease. If the infant approaches birth or if it becomes certain that the lungs mature almost always the recommended way is to deliver the baby immediately. should be delivered in large medical centers with good care for the premature baby. 24-28. Almost all physicians between weeks, to give the baby a little more time in the womb, even if the disease is severe, try to wait on the approach. This saves time for the baby to live out.
Women with preeclampsia have a high chance of returning to normal blood pressure immediately after birth if they do not have a chronic high blood pressure. In most cases, blood pressure occurs within the first 24 hours or within the first week. If 6 weeks have passed and it has not returned to normal, the cause of the disease will need to be investigated.

Eclampsia


Eclampsia, which can emerge before, during or after childbirth, is the last stage of preeclampsia. This may not be the case if good medical care is provided. It is characterized by epileptic seizures or coma. Prior to this, a sudden increase in fever, increased protein level in the urine, exaggerated reflexes, severe headache, nausea, vomiting, visual disturbances, drowsiness and rapid heartbeats are seen. The patient's surroundings are cleared of stimuli such as light and sound as much as possible.
Mostly with artificial pain or caesarean section. The majority of patients return to normal after birth, but careful monitoring is required.

PLACENTA PLACED DOWN


This is the placement of the placenta at the entrance of the uterus to cover the cervix completely or partially. It is common to have the placenta down at the beginning of pregnancy, but as the pregnancy progresses and the uterus expands, the placenta often raises up. In the few cases where it touches the cervix, it may be a problem in the later stages of pregnancy and at birth. The closer the placenta is to the cervix, the higher the chance of bleeding. If the placenta covers the cervix partially or completely, normal vaginal delivery becomes impossible. Women with a scar on the uterine wall after previous births, caesarean sections or abortions are at higher risk of placenta previa
Usually 34-38. Painless hemorrhage is the most common finding during the weeks of removal of the placenta from the stretched lower part of uterus. Between 7-30% of women with placenta previa may have no bleeding until delivery. Bleeding is usually bright red and is not associated with specific abdominal pain. It usually starts spontaneously, but may start coughing, strain or sexual intercourse. It may be mild or severe. Most of the time it stops but then starts again. Since the placenta closes the way, babies do not come down as usual, close to birth. If there is bleeding and placenta previa is suspected, the diagnosis is made by ultrasound.
Most of the cases of placenta previa seen at the beginning of pregnancy are self-recovering long before birth and do not cause any problems before the 20th week. If bleeding continues, it is necessary to hospitalize to evaluate the condition of the mother and the baby. iron and vitamin E support and blood transfusions as needed until the baby comes to maturity. The aim is to protect the pregnancy up to 36 weeks. Later, if the tests show that the baby's lungs develop, the baby can be delivered by cesarean section.
To summarize, most of the women diagnosed with placenta previa are delivered by caesarean section before the pains start. If the woman has not had any complaints and the condition is not noticed and the cervix is ​​not fully closed, normal birth can be tried. In both cases
the result is generally good.

EARLY SEPARATED PLACENTA

This early separation of the placenta from the uterus is the cause of one-fourth of late pregnancy bleeding. It is common in elderly mothers who have given birth to many children, smokers, and those with high blood pressure. If the separation is small, the bleeding may be mild or severe. There may also be abdominal cramps or slight pain and tenderness in the uterus.
Bleeding is more severe if separation is moderate. Your abdomen is sensitive and firm. Mother and baby may show signs of blood loss. This separation can respond to bed rest. But often blood transfusions may be required. The mother and the baby are then carefully monitored. When more than half of the placenta is separated from the uterine wall, there is an emergency for the mother and the baby. In this case, blood transfusions and emergency births are made. Previously, this disease was very dangerous for both the mother and the baby. Today, more than 90% of the disease exceeds this treatment.

EARLY Rupture of the Pouch


This water sac is called rupture before the pains begin. This situation may occur a few hours before the arrival of the baby, sometimes weeks or months ago. It is thought that the enzymes secreted by some bacteria weaken the membranes. The most common symptom is fluid leakage or gushing from the vagina. This is more severe when the woman is lying down. In the examination of the doctor, the diagnosis is made by the presence of alkaline fluid from the cervix.
For treatment, the mother with an early sac rupture is kept under observation for an entire day. During this period, the baby's condition is evaluated. The mother is monitored in terms of both contractions and the possibility of an infectious disease. The mother is hospitalized for all these evaluations. Fever of the mother and leukocyte (blood inflammation cells) count are monitored at regular intervals. If an infectious disease is involved, the physician should be able to respond immediately. A culture to be taken from the cervix helps to determine the causative agent of the infection. If the mother's contractions have started but the baby is not mature enough to live outside, the drug can be started to try to stop the contractions. This treatment can be continued as long as the mother and the baby are allowed to do so until the baby can be considered to have reached sufficient maturity. If the mother or the baby is in danger at any point, you can go to birth immediately.
It is very rare to improve the rupture of the sac and stop the leakage of amniotic fluid. But if such a situation arises then it is necessary to be alert to signs of leakage that may start again in the future. In case of premature rupture of the sac, most of the doctors are born 33-34. weeks, some even try to postpone until the 37th week. The only reason for this is whether the lungs of the baby have developed enough to survive. If early sac rupture occurs at 37 weeks or later, delaying delivery even for 24-36 hours has a great risk of infectious disease. Therefore, most doctors will immediately decide to start birth.

CORD SARK


The umbilical cord in the uterus connects the baby to the mother and provides a life bond. If the cord is stuck while passing, it becomes difficult for the baby to provide oxygen which is vital for the baby, and may even be completely cut off. The cord prolapse occurs more often in the case of premature births or if a part of the head comes out from the front. is detected during the. In case of sagging of the cord, the baby is continuously monitored by various tests. Of course, go to a health facility immediately. To support the cord in your urinary bladder in the hospital, a saline solution can be injected, the cord hanging out of the vagina can be pushed back and held in place with special sterile tampons, and you can prepare for an emergency cesarean section.

VENOUS THROMBOSIS (VASCULAR PLATE)


Women are more prone to forming blood clots during pregnancy, childbirth and especially postnatal periods. This is due to a change in the nature of the blood and an increased coagulation ability to prevent excessive bleeding during childbirth. Sometimes the uterus, which is very enlarged, makes it difficult for blood in the lower part of the body to return to the heart. Superficial vein clots occur in 1 or 2 of every 100 pregnancies. Deep vein thrombosis is a clot formed in the vein deeper in the leg. Deep vein thrombosis, if left untreated, the clot can go to the lungs, which is life-threatening. those with previous clot problems, those over 30 years of age, those who had given three or more births, those who were tied to bed for a long time, those who were overweight and had varicose veins on their legs.
In superficial vein clots (superficial thrombophlebitis) there is redness and tenderness along the vein near the surface of the thigh or calf. In deep thrombosis, the leg is heavy and painful, tenderness, swelling of the thigh or calf, and severe pain in the calf when the foot moves (toes up). Methods such as ultrasound or angiography can be used for the detection of clots. These symptoms require immediate medical supervision.
The best treatment for this condition is to prevent it from occurring. If you are prone to blood clots, wear varicose stockings. Avoid walking and sitting for more than 1 hour without stretching your legs. Do leg exercises frequently. Once a clot occurs, the treatment will vary depending on the type and location of the clot. The superficial ones; rest, keeping leg high, ointments, hot steam and varicose stockings could work. In perineal clots, treatment is started immediately with clot dissolving drugs (usually heparin) in order to prevent it from reaching the lungs.

BLOOD GROUP DISPUTE


Everyone has one of the major blood groups: A, B, AB or 0. Blood groups are determined based on certain specific substances (called antigens) found on blood cells. Antigens are special proteins that respond to foreign substances by the defense system. A blood group has only A antigens, B group B antigens, AB group has both antigens. The group 0 contains no antigens. There are other antigens that further customize blood groups. The most important of these is the Rh factor. Part of prenatal care is the determination of your blood group by performing blood tests. If there is no Rh factor in your blood, it is called Rh negative. More than 85% of people in the world are Rh positive. When the mother is Rh negative and the father is Rh positive, the child inherits the Rh factor and becomes Rh positive. Then there are some problems.

If the blood of the fetus somehow mixes with the blood of the mother before the birth, the mother's body begins to produce antibodies against the Rh factor of the child as if it has become allergic to the child. This means that the mother has gained sensitivity. Then these antibodies formed by the mother begin to kill the red blood cells of the fetus by first passing to the placenta and then to the fetus. This leads to anemia in the baby. This creates serious problems and may even lead to the loss of the baby. The risk is low in the first pregnancy. This is because the mother needs time to produce antibodies after exposure to the Rh positive antigens. However, once these antibodies are formed, they do not disappear once again and in other pregnancies they pass on to the baby and pose a risk.

The best thing to do is to be aware of the situation during the first pregnancy and prevent the mother from becoming sensitive. If you are Rh negative and your blood tests show that you are not sensitive, your doctor will give you a vaccine called Rhogam. This vaccine prevents the mother from sensitizing and producing counter antibodies. Thus the antibody will not pass on to the baby and will not harm the blood cells. In general, this vaccine can be administered from the 28th week of your first pregnancy to just after birth. If you are already susceptible, your baby is at risk. As your pregnancy progresses, your doctor will monitor the level of antibodies in your blood. If it is high, the baby's health will be checked by special tests. If the baby is bloodless, blood transfusions will be needed. After the 18th week of pregnancy, these blood transfusions can be done while the fetus is in the uterus. If the fetus is sufficiently advanced, preterm delivery can be preferred. Remember that if you become sensitive, all children after the first child are at risk and need careful monitoring.



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