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Thyroid glands are glands in the neck, whose diseases are called “goitre arasında and produce hormones. Disorders related to these glands during pregnancy are the most common endocrine disorders.
Normally, thyroid functions during pregnancy are as follows: Free T3 (thyroid hormone) and free T4 levels measured in the blood fluctuate, but within normal limits. TSH levels may be lower, especially when the pregnancy hormone β hCG is highest. After the first three months the thyroid gland of the fetus comes into play. It is very important for the T4 fetus passing through the placenta from the mother until this period. A thyroid hormone level within normal limits is very important for the development of brain in the newborn.
Hyperthyroidism in the mother (hard work of the thyroid gland): Hyperthyroidism rarely starts with pregnancy. Most patients have this condition before pregnancy. The most important cause of maternal hyperthyroidism is Graves' disease. Immunoglobulins formed in this disease cross the placenta and cause hyperthyroidism in the baby. There may also be growth retardation, sudden death, premature birth in the fetus. In the mother, hypertension, anemia, tendency to infection, early separation of the placenta, untreated cases of heart failure, thyroid crisis may develop. In these patients, free T3 and free T4 levels are increased and TSH levels are decreased. Treatment is usually done with medication (propylthiouracil or methimazole), and surgery is rarely used. The aim is to bring the free T4 level closer to normal. Serial ultrasound should be performed to closely monitor fetal well-being.
Transient hyperthyroidism may sometimes occur due to excessive pregnancy vomiting. Here too, TSH is suppressed, T4 and free T4 are increased, but generally T3 is lower than true hyperthyroidism.
Hypothyroidism (underestimation of the thyroid gland): In hypothyroid patients, it is often difficult to conceive because their ovulation functions are impaired. The most common cause of this disease is “autoimmune oluş, which is formed by antibodies produced by the body against its own tissues. Hypothyroid people develop fatigue, insomnia, sweating, hair loss, constipation, weight gain despite eating less, and carpal tunnel syndrome.
Hypothyroidism in pregnancy: Antibodies generated by the body against the thyroid can pass through the placenta to cause hypothyroidism in the fetus and, if left untreated, serious cognitive disorders may occur in the newborn. The risk of preeclampsia (high blood pressure, edema, protein leakage in the urine) increases and risks such as early separation of the placenta increase. Thyroid hormone (L thyroxine) should be given to the mother.